Review of Chemical Constituents and Medicinal Attributes of Jatropha tanjorensis J.L. Ellis and Saroja Leaves

Osayi Emmanuel Emeka*, Amujiri AN, Chigor CB, Onaebi CN, Nweze AE, Obayi HC, Nwafor FI

<em>Jatropha tanjorensis</em> “Hospital too far” is a well-known perennial plant grown for its leafy vegetable and much considerable potential. This review centered on how important chemical constituents of J. tanjorensis contribute medically in disease treatment and prevention, with a view to incorporate them into modern drug applications. The data source used in this review was obtained from secondary sources. The leaf is rich in phytochemical contents like phenols, alkaloids, terpenoids, cardiac glycoside, tannins and saponins responsible for its activities as antioxidant, antianemia, antimicrobial, antimalarial,  antihyperlipidemic, anti-cholesterol and antidiabetic agents. It contains many minerals like vitamins C, B1, B2 and B3, crude fiber, moisture, ash, sodium, iron, lignin, starch, mucilage, oil, calcium oxalate crystals, sugars, amino acids involved in cell activation and enzyme function. The ash values are considered as good determinant for purity and quality of crude drugs. Its flavonoid and phenolic compounds can inhibit the growth of bacteria. The plant secondary metabolites and mineral compositions can be influenced by the prevailing environmental factors in the surrounding habitat and toxicity of the medicinal herbs is dependent on the applied concentrations, doses and long term usage. This review supplied the necessary chemical constituents of J. tanjorensis and its medicinal values. Based on the findings, different extracts of J. tanjorensis leaf treat many health disorders by restoring of liver enzymes and ameliorating of depleted blood volume in physiological conditions, thus “hospital too far”.

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